Rod Lakes
Polymers as Biomaterials
Course Outline
Instructor: Rod Lakes, Professor

Text: No textbook

References: Billmeyer, F. W., Textbook of Polymer Science, 2nd ed., J. Wiley, NY, 1971.
or 3rd ed., 1984.
Ferry, J. D., Viscoelastic properties of Polymers, J. Wiley, 1970.
I. M. Ward and D. W. Hadley, Mechanical Properties of Solid Polymers, J. Wiley, 1993.
Selected reserve materials.
L. Mandelkern, An introduction to macromolecules, Springer-Verlag, NY, 1983, ChemQD381 M37
D. Miller, R. Stegmann, ed's, Healon (sodium hyaluronate) A guide to its use in ophthalmic surgery, J. Wiley, NY, 1983.
A. Rembaum, M. Shen, eds, Symposium on Biomedical Polymers, Marcel Dekker, NY, 1971. Med RD120.5 S95

Description: Physical, chemical, optical, and biological characteristics of polymers. Biocompatibility of polymers, including the effect of polymers on the body and the effect of the body environment on polymers. Relevance of these characteristics to the use of polymers in the human body to restore function, aid healing, or replace a damaged body part. Discussion of specific applications.

Phenomenology. Glassy, rubbery, crystalline states.
Monomers, repeat units, kinds of polymerization.
Polymer structure. Linear structure. Branched structure. Cross-links.
Isomers. Molecular weight averages.
Natural polymers in spinal disks.
Molecular weight and shape. Light scattering.
Solubility. Plasticizers.
Transitions. Copolymers.
Optical properties. Contact lenses. Intraocular lenses.
Mechanical properties. Viscoelasticity. Moduli. Time- temperature superposition.
Applications in orthopaedics.
Applications in soft tissue reconstruction.
Applications in dentistry. Dental composite resins.
Project presentations.

Term paper:
Topics: specific polymers, e. g. (1) Polyethylene, (2) Polypropylene, (3) Natural and synthetic elastomers, (4) Silicone elastomers, (5) Polyacrylics, (6) Fluorine-containing polymers, (7) Polyamides, (8) Polypeptides, (9) Polyesters, (10) Polyethers, (11) Polyurethanes, (12) Collagen, (13) Elastin, (14) Cellulose.
Topics: specific applications, e. g., (1) Intraocular lenses, (2) Chin augmentation, (3) Blood vessels, (4) Dental composite resins, (5) Mammary prostheses, (6) Catheters, (7) Ligament replacements, (8) Joint replacements, (9) Heart valves, (10) Electronics such as pacemakers and electrode insulation.

Contents. The written segment should include a presentation of the relevant physical, mechanical, chemical, thermal, optical, and biological characteristics of the material and their relation to its function in the body; clinical evaluation of the success of the material in applications, a discussion of sterilizability, a discussion of future developments, and references. The oral portion should provide a clear, concise summary of the results obtained.